COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease): All You Need to Know

A category of lung disease known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) makes exhaling (breathing air out) difficult. The causes and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are discussed in detail in this blog post.

What is COPD?

When airflow is obstructed in the lungs, it is called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smokers or ex-smokers in middle age or older are at increased risk for developing COPD. Workplace exposure to dust, gases, and chemicals has been linked to an increased risk of COPD and an increased risk of developing asthma or chest problems at a young age. Consisting of chronic (ongoing) bronchitis and emphysema, COPD is characterized by the following:


Bronchitis is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Many people with bronchitis will cough up mucus. However, for those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis is a chronic condition rather than an acute illness (chronic). The National Health Service provides information about acute bronchitis.


When you have emphysema, the tiny air sacs at the end of your airways in your lungs become inflamed and unable to function correctly, resulting in decreased oxygen uptake and increased carbon monoxide release. Damage to these air sacs causes the lungs to grow enlarged, with larger holes that trap air and make it difficult to exhale.

In many cases, both conditions manifest simultaneously. The result is a narrowing of the airways, which occurs in both situations. This reduces the efficiency with which your lungs take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide during normal breathing.

Mucus and elastic tissue line your airways. The elastic tissue in a healthy lung pulls on the airways, keeping them open. Causes of the narrowing of airways in a COPD lung include:

  • When the lungs are injured, less tissue pulls on the airways, allowing for easier breathing.
  • A buildup of mucus blocking part of the airway
  • Inflammation and swelling of the airway lining

COPD is a long-term illness for which there is now no treatment. You can have better airflow and stay active with the help of therapies and drugs. Self-care measures that you can do in the comfort of your own home are also available.

COPD has varied effects on its sufferers. Mild lung damage and few symptoms may be the case for some people with the illness. People with severe COPD have severely damaged lungs, making it difficult for them to breathe and restricting their daily activities.

Causes of COPD

COPD commonly develops due to long-term lung damage caused by breathing in a hazardous substance. Typically, this is cigarette smoke. However, COPD can also be caused by other types of smoke and air pollution. Jobs that expose people to dust, gases, and chemicals can potentially contribute to the development of COPD.

You are more prone to acquire COPD if you're over 35, a smoker, or you had chest difficulties as a youngster.

Breathing in dangerous compounds has a greater impact on certain persons than others. COPD appears to run in families, so if your parents had chest difficulties, your risk is increased. A rare genetic disease known as alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency increases the risk of developing COPD at a young age.

Symptoms of COPD

COPD includes, but is not limited to:

  • Shortness of breath when performing routine tasks such as walking or cleaning
  • Expelling more mucus (phlegm) than usual during coughing fits, wheezing, and chronic coughing

These symptoms may be persistent. As well as this, an illness or exposure to smoke or fumes might bring them on or make them worse.

Loss of appetite and weight loss are symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which makes breathing difficult. An additional symptom of fluid retention is swollen ankles (oedema). Both of these indicate advanced COPD.

The prognosis for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Flare-ups are a possible symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (also called acute exacerbations). Breathing difficulties and other symptoms worsen rapidly. Some persons with COPD may need hospitalization as their condition worsens to the point that they cannot receive adequate care at home. However, a major flare-up can still be fatal, even if the disease is treated. Approximately 4 percent of those brought to the hospital with an acute exacerbation of COPD are expected to pass away while there.

Around 1.3 million people in the UK have been diagnosed with COPD. Further, COPD is responsible for roughly 30,000 annual deaths in the United Kingdom. Discuss long-term treatments and planning for your care with your doctor or nurse. If you want your loved ones and your doctor to respect your desires if your health worsens or you experience more severe flare-ups, you should consider what you would like to happen in advance.

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