The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerve fibers that run from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. When these nerves are sick or hurt, they can't send the right messages between the brain and the rest of the body. This is called peripheral neuropathy. Damage to the arms and legs nerves can disrupt normal sensation, slow muscle reflexes, and cause pain. To report peripheral neuropathy with the proper ICD-10 codes, you need to know how the nervous system is put together and how it works. This is why coding and physician billing service providers hire experts in this field.
Neuropathy can take several forms. Damage to a single peripheral nerve is referred to as mononeuropathy, whereas dysfunction in multiple nerves is referred to as polyneuropathy.
Many types of neuropathy can be traced back to a faulty gene handed down from a parent to a child. People can get neuropathy from environmental toxins, injuries, diseases, and infections. Idiopathic neuropathy is a form of nerve damage for which no clear cause exists.
According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes (NINDS), there are more than a hundred types of peripheral neuropathy. Approximately 30 million Americans have this illness. The most typical reasons for neuropathy are:
- Diabetes – around 60% to 70% of patients with diabetes will develop diabetic neuropathy, the most prevalent form of peripheral neuropathy.
- Trauma – Any circumstance that causes compression or damage to a nerve, such as repetitive stress or a fall, is considered trauma (such as carpel tunnel syndrome).
- Medications, such as several types of chemotherapy drugs, HIV medications, anticonvulsants, and heart and blood pressure meds
- Deficiencies in nutrition and vitamins
- Chronic alcohol consumption
- Acute kidney failure, liver failure, lung cancer, and other life-threatening illnesses
- Disorders involving the pituitary gland and the thyroid
- Diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of autoimmunity caused by infections
- Nerve compression caused by benign or malignant tumors
- Toxic chemicals in the environment and industries
Whether sensory, motor or autonomic nerves are compromised, different symptoms of peripheral neuropathy will present themselves. Muscle weakness, cramping, or atrophy; loss of reflexes, coordination, or balance; extreme sensitivity to touch; blurred vision; decreased or excessive sweating and heat intolerance; difficulty swallowing or breathing; inability to sweat; dizziness, fainting, or passing out; and sexual dysfunction are all common symptoms.
Diagnosing peripheral neuropathy begins with a comprehensive patient history and physical exam. The neurologist may order nerve conduction and function tests, electromyography (EMG), nerve or skin biopsy, and imaging tests to detect tumors, herniated discs, or other abnormalities that could strain nerves based on the findings. It will be suggested that blood tests and other lab checks be done to find the underlying conditions that may cause neuropathy or its complications.
Diabetic Neurological Complications
Diabetes mellitus causes chronic peripheral, cranial, and autonomic neuropathies. ICD-10 needs only one code to code diabetic neuropathy rather than separate diabetes and neuropathy codes:
- 40 – Type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic neuropathy, unspecified
- 41 – Type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic mononeuropathy
- 42 – Type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic polyneuropathy
- 43 – Type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic autonomic (poly)neuropathy
- 49 – Type 2 diabetes mellitus with other diabetic neurological complications
- 4 – Other specified diabetes mellitus with neurological complications
- 40 – Other specified diabetes mellitus with diabetic neuropathy, unspecified
- 41 – Other specified diabetes mellitus with diabetic mononeuropathy
- 42 – Other specified diabetes mellitus with diabetic polyneuropathy
- 43 – Other specified diabetes mellitus with diabetic autonomic (poly)neuropathy
- 44 – Other specified diabetes mellitus with diabetic amyotrophy
- 49 – Other specified diabetes mellitus with other diabetic neurological complication